The Kempton Park Settlement was and remains a flawed settlement because it was based on the interpretation of the National Question not as that of settler colonialism or a colonialism of a special type. It conflated the struggle for national self-determination and independence to that of democratisation. Having reduced the National Question to that of democratisation, serious compromises were made on fundamental issues of the land and by extension the property clauses that guaranteed the retention of ill gotten gains by the white minority and rendered the question of nationalisation a mere restitution case based on willing buyer and willing seller. In short the Kliptown Charter vision of Nationalisation was thrown out of the window at Kempton Park. Thus leaving control of mining and land in the hands of the white minority, with very little room to make necessary and required radical changes.
The plan to overthrow then Apartheid government began as early as 1963 when Zephaniah “The Lion of Azania” Mothopeng was in the notorious Robben Island prison following his arrest during the PAC led Anti-Pass Campaign on the 21st March 1960. He was a member of the PAC National Leadership at the time.